What Is Cold Welding and Its Types?

September 11, 2022

Cold welding, as the name suggests, involves connecting two metal components while maintaining ambient temperature and pressure. Aluminum, copper, lead, and other malleable metals are frequently cold welded.

The cold welding of metals, including aluminum and other metals, the cold welding of TIG, and related subjects will all be covered in this article.

What Is Cold Welding?

A solid-state welding technique, cold welding, joins two or more metals with no heat. Instead, pressure is used as the source of energy to bind the materials together. No metal is liquefied or even noticeably heated during the cold welding procedure.

How Does It Work?

The elimination of oxide layers from the surfaces of the materials being joined allows cold welding to bind two metals together without heat. Even though it might not be noticeable to the unaided eye, almost all metals have some oxide layer under normal circumstances. These metal oxides act as a barrier to stop the metal atoms in the materials from pressing against one another and fusing. The metal atoms can unite under adequate pressure once the oxide layer is removed.

Simply put, pressure is used to apply the energy required to bind the metal. The workpiece surfaces are pressed as tightly as possible by the applied pressure. Once the pieces are forced together, the nanoscale spacing is no longer significant, and metal atoms move quickly between them. The two different pieces of metal fuse together into a homogeneous mass, creating a nearly flawless bond with almost no consequences.

Various mechanical and chemical techniques are employed to remove the oxide layer. Wire brushing, degreasing, and other procedures are employed to ensure that there are no oxides on the metal's surface. Additionally, the metals must have some flexibility. The pressure required to produce the metallurgical bonding is then generated using industrial machinery.

What Is The Purpose Of Cold Welding?

Cold welding is one of the most common applications when combining different metals. This is so that they will not connect properly when different metals are heated together. This may prevent the metals from connecting or result in weak bonds. Welding only uses atomic bonds created by free electrons; it does not have this issue.

Cold welding is often employed to produce butt or lap joints. Cold welding is frequently used in laboratory studies as well as in the aerospace, automotive, and advanced manufacturing industries. It is frequently utilized to connect wires.

What Kind Of Metal Can Be Cold Welded?

Copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, brass alloy 70/30, nickel, silver, silver alloys, platinum, and gold can all be cold welded. Due to their propensity to break under heat and difficulty joining using techniques other than cold welding, they cannot be fusion welded.

Carbon steel and other metals containing carbon cannot be cold welded. Since carbon steel is the most frequently welded metal, this severely restricts the usage of cold welding.

Metals having a face-centered cubic arrangement of atoms that don't work to harden quickly are the most outstanding candidates for cold welding. Before the pressure from cold welding can form a bond, swiftly working metals frequently break. Only the very ductile metals mentioned above can be cold welded because of this.

Types Of Cold Welding

There is only one type of cold welding. Instead, there are three approaches with similar names. Let's look at these procedures in more detail.

1. Cold Metal Transfer

Using a welding arc, cold metal transfer (CMT) creates joints using fusion welding. The term "cold welding" is often mislabeled, which leads to confusion. A CMT welding process requires about 90% less heat input than a regular MIG welding process. The cold nature of this arc welding process solves many of the problems associated with cold welding. However, it would help if you didn't confuse them.

The CMT can be used with metals when cold pressure welding is impossible since it uses an electrical arc and filler metal wire. However, the CMT relies on precise wire retraction once the arc starts to manage the heat input.

2. Cold TIG Welding

TIG cold welding has nothing to do with the procedure outlined in this article, just like CMT did above. A "cool" option on some TIG welding machines effectively reduces the heat input. It accomplishes this by briefly introducing an electric arc to a small area. The low temperature is caused by the quick dissipation of any heat produced, especially when using a highly conductive metal like aluminum. When welding wires and fragile metal sheets, this is helpful. However, you could accomplish something similar with any skilled TIG welder utilizing the pulse settings.

3. Epoxy Bonding (JB Weld)

The epoxy bonding technique is utilized with metal, concrete, brick, fibreglass, etc. Despite being called an "Original Cold-Weld Formula," it doesn't weld the metals together. There is no interatomic attraction, and the two metals do not fuse to form a homogenous mass, as in the cold welding process.

Metal can adhere with epoxy bonding Weld but won't be welded together. The item epoxy comes in two parts: a base and an activator. You should clamp the metal parts down after mixing and applying this product to them to start the curing process.

Advantages Of Cold Welding

Since no heat is used on the material, cold welding has the apparent advantage of saving energy. This lessens the possibility of the material deteriorating or warping. Additionally, it enables you to combine metals of various sorts without requiring the same level of proficiency or mastery as arc welding.

Disadvantages Of Cold Welding

The main drawback of cold welding is that immaculate, oxide-free materials are required to produce a quality weld. This can be challenging to carry out, costly, and challenging to implement in a high-volume situation. Cold welding is also constrained by the alloys that can be welded together because at least one of the metals must be ductile.


When it comes to welding, the word "cold" is unclear. The lack of communication between engineers is partly to blame for this. Most ground-floor workers haven't worked with contact welding. However, they are well familiar with a " running cold machine." These procedures are all quite valuable. It simply depends on what is more suitable for the purpose.

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