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Introduction To The Metal Folding Process

Introduction To The Metal Folding Process

Metal folding gives a metal product its shape. The metal is bent (or folded) using a machine to get the desired shape. The advantages of employing this durable and effective machine include its ability to fold minute details. It can also produce a variety of forms for many common products.


Metal folding is really simple. It includes shaping the metal while avoiding material damage. To alter the metal's shape beyond its yield strength but below its tensile strength limits, certain machines are needed to apply stress to the material. To obtain varied shapes for the material, workers employ several types of die sets. In addition, depending on the project and available resources, workers may use a variety of metal folding techniques.

It is common to fold metal on CNC machines. While some versions are adaptable and repeatable, others offer more precision and accuracy. Every metal folding technique, regardless of what it is, has something to offer.

Continue reading below to learn more about metal folding techniques!


  • Air Bending.
  • Bottom Bending.
  • Coining.
  • Wiping Die Bending.
  • Rotary Bending.


A puncher and a v-opening bottom die are used while air-bending metal. There will be three points of contact when the metal is fed into the press brake: the puncher, the two edges of the v-shaped die, and the metal itself. How far the puncher bends the metal into the die depends on the desired angle for the metal.

Possibly the most popular and frequently employed folding method is this one. Its flexibility, which allows you to utilize a single die for various angles and practically any material, is one of its significant advantages. It is much more appealing because of its low tonnage. As you may already know, this method harms the substance.


Bottom bending utilizes a V-opening bottom die and is similar to air bending. The sheet metal is entirely pushed together using this method instead of being pushed down to the proper angle by the puncher. The process name comes from where the metal comes into contact with the lower end of the V-opening die. Because of this, bottom bending is less springy and more precise than air bending. However, it requires greater punch pressure and specialized dies for various angles. In other words, the die used needs to be changed frequently.


Coining is a closed-die process that requires a great deal of pressure, unlike the other two procedures. With increased pressure and accuracy, the machine stamps the sheet metal in the space between the punch and the die. Gear-driven presses, mechanical presses, and hydraulic presses can all be used for this procedure.

This approach has some benefits, such as easier repeatability and a more detailed, smoother finish. Additionally, it can be done without specialized tools. As a result of the technique's reduced grain size and tougher surface, additional finishing steps are eliminated.


A wiping flange moves across the portion of sheet metal that sticks out of the pad and dies. This is while the piece of metal is pressed against the die in this procedure.

With this method, also known as edge bending, you push the sheet metal up against the die's edge, bending it to the desired angle. A lower shoe supports the die, while an upper shoe holds and controls the flange. If you wish to alter the bend's angle, you can do so here. The metal is held in place before contacting the flange by a spring located between the pad and the upper shoe. The spring also keeps the metal in place as it is bent.

You can choose the angle at which the sheet metal must be bent based on the adjustments you make to the flange and the die. Furthermore, modifications might even enable you to create bends using this method.


Rotary bending, which is most common on pipes, involves bending the material on a stationary die adjusted to virtually any angle required. Additionally, it is suitable for huge or heavy sheets that require more labor than necessary or may raise safety issues.

People utilize this method because it is incredibly flexible and can bend metals beyond a 90-degree bend—in rare cases, it can even bend metals 180 degrees. Given that it consumes more than 50% less tonnage and incurs lower labor costs, it is also regarded as a cost-effective technology.


Metal fabrication has specific applications for certain metal folding processes. Use coining if you are interested in repeatability. If not, you can apply alternative techniques if they work better for your project. High-quality metals are also necessary for a decent metal folding process to produce reliable results. Metal Exponents can help you with this.

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